СПИСОК ТЕРМИНОВ К ДИКТАНТУ



Alliteration a repetition of the initial consonant in two or more words, following one another.
Allusion an indirect reference, by a word or a phrase, to a historical, literary, mythological, biblical fact or to a fact of everyday life.
Anaphora initial repetition of a word or phrase or sentence in successive phrases, sentences or larger units.
Anticlimax an unexpected turn of the thought, contrary to the expectations of the reader/listener.
Antithesis a stylistic device based on an arrangement of a sentence or a larger unit, in which contrasting ideas are set one against the other.
Antonomasia a lexico-semantic stylistic device, based on the interplay of the nominal meaning and the contextual meaning.
Archaic word an old word, which is either disappearing or has disappeared altogether.
Assonance similarity of stressed vowels
Asyndeton a connection between parts of a sentence or between sentences without any formal sign.
Barbarism a word of foreign origin which has not been assimilated into the English language. It sounds and looks foreign, and is felt alien.
Break in the narrative (aposiopesis) a sudden pause/break in the narrative aimed at achieving a certain stylistic effect.
Cliché a word combination which has long lost its originality and become hackneyed and trite, but which is used as if it were fresh and original.
Climax (gradation) an arrangement of statements in an ascending orderof importance or expressiveness.
Decomposition of phraseological units changing the ready-made phraseological units on the basis of reflection or innovation.
Description presentation of the background of action, its atmosphere, scenery, and characters.
Detachment placement of the secondary parts of the sentence in a position of seemingly formal independence.
Dialectal word a word used in a certain locality.
Ellipsis omission of various parts of the sentence.
Enumeration a device by means of which separate things, actions, persons and features are named one by one so that they produce a chain, the links of which form homogeneous sentence parts.
Epigram a witty saying resembling proverbs but created by men of letters.
Epiphora final repetition of a word or phrase in successive clauses or sentences.
Epithet a stylistic device, based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in an attributive word, phrase or sentence.
Euphemism a word or a word combination which is used to replace a word with an unpleasant association.
Expressive means a predictable phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical form existing in the language for logical and/or emotional intensification. The main sphere of expressive means is everyday language and esp. colloquial style, where they are used spontaneously and subconsciously.
Foreignism a foreign word, used by English-speaking people to add local color.
Fragmentation separating parts of a bigger extended sentence into small autonomous independent units.
Framing a repetition of a word, phrase, or sentence both at the beginning and at the end of a sentence or a larger syntactical unit.
Functional style a subsystem of language means used in a certain sphere of life for a definite communicative aim.
Gap-sentence link (cumulation) the use of a connective in a peculiar, unconventional way.
Graphon a peculiar, non-standard or emphatic pronunciation of words, expressed through unusual spelling.
Hyperbole a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential to an object.
Idiolect speech of an individual, characterized by lexical, grammatical and phonetic peculiarities typical of that particular individual
Individual style recognizable individual peculiarities of using language and style by writers in order to achieve the desired effect.
Inversion a change in the word order, helping to emphasize certain elements of the setnece.
Irony A STYLISTIC DEVICE based on the interplay of logical and contextual meaning, and these meaning are in opposition to each other
Jargonism a word whose aim is to preserve secrecy within one or another social group.
Linking (anadiplosis, catch repetition) the repeated use of the last word or phrase at the beginning of the following sentence.
Litotes a peculiar use of negative constructions- for the sake of assertion.
Meditation some thoughts, ideas, reasoning of the author, which could be philosophical or moral
Metaphor a stylistic device based on the interplay of logical and contextual meaning and on comparison.
Metonymy a lexico-semantic stylistic device based on the interplay of the logical and contextual meaning and on association
Narration presentation of events in their development.
Nonce-word an occasional word created specifically for a certain occasion.
Onomatopoeia an imitation of sounds produced in nature, by things or people.
Oxymoron a combination of two words in which the meanings of the two clash, being opposite in sense.
Parallelism a repetition of the syntactical structure of mainly the initial parts of successive clauses, sentences or paragraphs.
Periphrasis a word combination, a phrase which is used instead of another word or word combination and renames it.
Poetic word a highly literary word producing an elevated effect.
Polysyndeton a stylistic device of connecting sentences, or phrases, or words by using several times the same connectives.
Professionalism names anew already-existing concepts, tools or instruments, connected with the business activities of different branches of occupations.
Proverb a brief statements showing in condensed form the accumulated life experience of the community.
Pun (play upon words, paronomasia) a stylistic device in which two meanings of the word are interacting or two homonyms are used.
Question-in-the-narrative is asked and answered by one and the same person, usually the author.
Quotation a repetition of a phrase or statement from a book, speech used by way of authority, illustration, and proof.
Repetition recurrence of the same element within a sentence.
Represented speech presentation of uttered speech or unuttered inner speech of the character done by the author.
Rhetorocal question a syntactical stylistic device based on the transference of structural meaning of the interrogative sentence.
Rhyme repetition of identical or similar final sounds of words.
Rhythm the pattern of interchange of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Simile a comparison of two objects, belonging to different classes.
Slang word a colloquial word, often used in very informal intercourse, an intentional substitute for a neutral or elevated word and expression.
Style a specificity of a sublanguage
Stylistic device a conscious and deliberate intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic feature of a language unit. A stylistic device is a result of a conscious artistic transformation f a language fact.
Sublanguage a set of lingual units actually used in a given sphere
Supraphrasal unit comprises a number of sentences which are interdependent both structurally and semantically.
Suspense deliberated postponement of the completion of the sentence.
Term a word in different branches of knowledge dealing with some exact names of concepts, instruments or activities.
Text a semantically and syntactically independent unit of speech.
Vulgarism a words considered too offensive for polite usage.

ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ВОПРОСЫ ДЛЯ САМОКОНТРОЛЯ



1 Stylistics. Main styles and substyles

2 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: obsolete, archaic words, historisms, neologisms

3 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: barbarisms, terms, slang, jargonisms, professionalisms, dialectal words

4 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: neutral, colloquial, literary coinages, poetic, vulgarisms

5 Phonetic Expressive means: onomatopoeia

6 Phonetic Expressive means: alliteration, assonance

7 Rhyme, types of rhyme

8 Bathos and Irony

9 Different types of lexical meaning

10 Metaphor, types

11Metonymy, types

12 Polysemy, pun and zeugma

13 Epithet, types

14 Oxymoron and antonomasia

15Simile and periphrasis

16 Hyperbole and meiosis

17 Euphemism and litotes

18 Allegory and personification

19Allusion and decomposition of set phrases

20 Inversion, types

21 Parallel construction and chiasmus

22 Repetition and anadiplosis

23 Enumeration and climax

24 Antithesis, asyndeton, polysyndeton

25Graphical means and graphon

26 Functional Style: general definition, main styles

27 Belles-lettres styles: characteristic features and substyles

28 The language of poetry

29 Emotive prose

30 The Drama

31 Publicistic style: characteristic features and substyles

32 Oratory speeches, the Essay, Journalistic article

33Scientific Prose: characteristic features and substyles

34 The Style of official documents: characteristic features and substyles

35 Newspaper style: characteristic features and substyles

36 Brief news item

37 The headline

38 The Editorial


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